Research and Analysis of Energy Crisis in Pakistan

in Featured/National

If you want to be a developed country, you have to increase your production of energy. Because energy is a lifeline for the economy of a country. So, Energy crisis can be defined as Demand of energy is more than the production of energy. It is said that there is no crisis of energy, food, and peace, but the crisis of ignorance is the actual crisis.

Pakistan has been facing severe energy crisis for more than one decade, because of poor energy infrastructure. Due to poor energy infrastructure transmission losses are very high. Moreover, rapid demand growth and power theft are also worsening the situation. Consequently, people of Pakistan have been suffering in load shedding for a long period. The energy crisis in Pakistan is becoming worse day by day.

Energy Production and Consumption:

Record power generation was noted in the month of June 2017; 18,904MW. Nevertheless, after producing a record power, meet the demand of energy is not a low hanging fruit. Consumption of energy is almost 23000MW. (Dawn). Hence, you can estimate the energy crisis in Pakistan by above-mentioned facts from dawn.

Energy resources:

Two types of energy resources are providing electricity in Pakistan

  1. Non-Renewable Energy Resources.
  2. Renewable Energy Resources.

Non-Renewable Energy Resources:

Emanation points of non-renewable energy resources are a surface of the earth and beneath the Earth. Non-Renewable Energy Resources in Pakistan for power generation are following;

  • Petroleum products
  • Natural Gases
  • Coal
  • Nuclear Energy

Main Resources of power generation from Petroleum are following;


  1. Kot Addu Power Company Limited (KAPCO)
  • KAPCO has been working since 1996 in Kot Addu, developed by WAPDA.
  • Capacity of KAPCO is about 1350MW
  • Current CEO of KAPCO is Mr Aftab Mehmmod.
  1. Hub Power Company Limited (HUBCO)
  • Location of HUBCO is Hub, Lasbella district, Balochistan.
  • Power generation capacity of HUBCO is 1292 MW.
  • After success in Power Generation by Oil, HUBCO has a plan to start a project of power generation by Coal.

3. Karachi Electric (KE)

  • Karachi Electric was founded in 1913 after independence KE shared its expertise with Pakistan.
  • It was privatized in 2009 at $361m. Now KE is working under the Abraaj Capital -a leading private firm based in Dubai- management.
  • It is distributing electric power to 23m people of Karachi.
  • The capacity of power generation of KE is almost 1260MW.

Total power generated by petroleum in Pakistan is almost 8000MW. Besides these three main resources, there are almost 15 other small resources of power generation by oil.

Natural Gas:

As petroleum is the main resource for power generation, Natural gas is also another one.

Pakistan energy generation also depends upon the plants of Natural gases. Main plants which are generating energy by Natural gas are mentioned below;

  1. Guddu Power Plant:
  • Guddu Power Plant was inaugurated by ex-Prime minister Mian Nawaz Sharif in 2014 with the capacity of 2402 MW.
  • Initially, Guddu Power Plant produced almost 747 MW.
  1. Uch-II Power Plant:
  • Since 2000, Uch-II power plant has been working with the capacity of 1000MW; located in Balochistan
  • Construction of Uch-II power plant started in 1996 and completed in 2000.

3. Nandipur Power Project:

  • Nandipur Power project situated at Nandipur near Gujranwala.
  • Its construction started in 2008 and after an inordinate delay project was completed in 2015.
  • The estimated cost this project was 23b PKR, Due to inordinate delay total cost reached up to 84 billion rupees.
  • The total capacity of Nandipur power project is 425MW.

Bahadur Shah power plant and Bhikki RLNG based power plants are also taking a major part to generate power.

Total power generated by Natural gas is almost 8500MW. Total 18 power plants are working on natural gas and generating energy. Many power plants are under construction in Pakistan after the completion of that plants, energy crisis can be controlled.


Coal is the other non-renewable resource in Pakistan for generating electricity. Almost 4 coal power stations are functional at this time. Sahiwal coal Power Project is the main project which is generating energy by coal.

Sahiwal Coal Power Project:

  • Recently, it starts its working in May 2017.
  • A total capacity of generating electricity is 1320MW.

Although power generation of Pakistan is much dependent on non-renewable energy resources, they have some flaws. During the burning of natural resources, they produce carbon dioxide(CO 2) which is one of the major causes of global warming, so power generation by natural resources is not environment- friendly. Power generation by Coal and oil are discouraged by the world due to environmental pollution and it’s too much expensive.

Renewable Energy Resources:

These resources can also be acquired from nature and can be replenished easily. We can get energy from sun heat, Water(tides), wind, and geothermal heat etc. Pakistan is generating most of its electricity from water tides. However, Pakistan has potential to produce electricity from other resources like wind and sunlight.

Hydro Power (Water Energy):

Although Pakistan is an underdeveloped country in Renewable energy resources but nowadays valuable work is being done by Government of Pakistan with the help of some Environmental experts.

Some of the main Hydro Power Stations are mentioned in following;

Tarbela Dam:

  • Tarbela Dam constructed in 1976 on Indus River.
  • It is the largest earth filled dam in the world.
  • The capacity of Tarbela Hydroelectric Power Station is 3478 MW and it will be increased up to 6298MW after constructing 4th

Ghazi-Barotha Hydropower Project:

  • It has been generating power since 2002, located in Attock, Punjab.
  • The capacity of producing electricity is 1450 MW.
  • It is working under the WAPDA.

Mangla Dam:

  • 7th largest dam in the world, Mangla Dam, constructed in 1961-67.
  • It was constructed on the Jhelum River in Pakistan State of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • 1150MW can be produced from Mangla Hydropower project.

More than 50 hydroelectric plants are functional in Pakistan. As mentioned above that Pakistan is facing a shortfall of 4000 to 5000 MW, If Government of Pakistan makes a success to construct KalaBagh Dam then this shortfall can be controlled easily.

Besides all these above-mentioned energy resources, Pakistan is generating her energy from the wind on small scale.

4 major Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan:

It is essential to point out the roots of a problem for the elimination of the problem. Without knowing the root causes of problem you cannot eradicate the issue. Nowadays Energy crisis is a talk of the town in Pakistan and to overcome this problem we have to know about main causes of the energy crisis. Following are the major causes of the energy crisis.

1. Rapid Demand Growth:

Demand for energy drastically increased and production remained stagnant in last one decade. There are some following causes of rapid demand growth;

  • Due to a rapid growth of population, demand for energy grew.
  • Pakistan made a historic success in industry, due to industrialization demand of energy increased
  • Agriculture also added fuel to fire in the energy crisis.

2. Wastage of Energy:

Due to outdated equipment -used for transmission- transmission losses occur. These losses are growing the energy crisis.

Moreover, We saw many ads in newspapers and Television about conservation of energy but there is no pragmatic thought about adapting that kind of policy. Everyone is busy in wasting of energy. The government of Pakistan failed to create any realization about wastage of energy after its full effort. That is also one major cause of energy crisis.

3. Expensive Way of Generating Power:

Pakistan is generating her energy from very expensive resources like natural gas and petroleum, even though Pakistan has her indigenous resources like coal in excess. So, underdeveloped country like Pakistan cannot afford such expensive methods for generating power.

So, Generating energy with expensive resources also is a cause of energy crisis.

4. Government Role:

The government of Pakistan is always investing in private sectors of energy rather than it should try to build its own units of power. This approach of Government of Pakistan is increasing problem of the energy crisis. So, Concern persons should think about that carefully. So that situation cannot be aggravated anymore.

Effects of Energy Crisis in Pakistan:

List of impacts of energy crisis is very lengthy but following are the main effects of energy crisis;

1. Low Graph of Economy:

Economy growth rate suffered a lot due to the energy crisis. Energy crisis devastated the industry of Pakistan which has a due share in the economy of Pakistan. Moreover, the agriculture sector has destroyed also due to energy crisis and this destruction has a bad impact on the economy of Pakistan.

2. Unemployment:

Cloture of industry gave birth a new child called unemployment. Unemployment causes the deviant behaviour of people. Agitation and frustration increased due to unemployment and load shedding in people.

3. Poverty:

Closure of industries and destruction of agriculture sector were the main reasons for unemployment and this unemployment always brings poverty with itself. Currently, 40% of our population is living below the poverty line.

Solutions of Energy Crisis:

As we discussed 4 major causes of the energy crisis, 4 major solutions will be discussed in the following discussion.

1. Increasing production by hydropower generation:

After seeing rapid demand growth of energy we should utilize our energy resources efficiently. We should construct small and large dams to meet our energy requirements. KalaBagh Dam should be constructed. Moreover, we have coal in large quantity, we should utilize this natural resource to generate energy rather than petroleum and natural gas.

2. Conservation of Energy:

We are wasting our electricity on two levels

  1.  On administrative Level by using outdated equipment.So, updated equipment should be used so that we can avoid further transmission losses.
  2. On domestic Level we should conserve energy in our homes and offices and start a campaign about conservation of energy to aware the people about the energy crisis.

Affordable Resources of Energy in Pakistan:

The government should adopt affordable resources for generating energy. Power should be produced by coal instead of petroleum because Pakistan has a large quantity of coal in Tharparkar.

So, it is an effective procedure to curb the cluster bomb of the energy crisis.

Hence, the conclusion is that energy crisis in Pakistan can be controlled by creating awareness in people and applying some good policies to avoid transmission losses and power theft.


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